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Friday, July 17, 2020 | History

3 edition of report on sea ice conditions in the Eastern Arctic, summer 1956 found in the catalog.

report on sea ice conditions in the Eastern Arctic, summer 1956

W. A. Black

report on sea ice conditions in the Eastern Arctic, summer 1956

by W. A. Black

  • 138 Want to read
  • 40 Currently reading

Published by Geographical Branch, Dept. of Mines and Technical Surveys in Ottawa .
Written in English


Edition Notes

StatementW.A. Black.
SeriesGeographical papers. Miscellaneous papers series ;, no. 9
Classifications
LC ClassificationsMLCM 84/6263 (G)
The Physical Object
Pagination21 p., [10] p. of plates :
Number of Pages21
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL3274760M
LC Control Number83197643

ERA5 is generally warmer than ERA-Interim in summer and autumn over Arctic sea ice, although both of these reanalyses have a warm bias (Wang et al. ). ERA5 provides the best estimates of downward radiative fluxes in spring and summer, suggesting more realistic representation of Arctic cloud cover in it (Graham et al. ). The climate of the Arctic is characterized by long, cold winters and short, cool summers. There is a large amount of variability in climate across the Arctic, but all regions experience extremes of solar radiation in both summer and winter. Some parts of the Arctic are covered by ice (sea ice, glacial ice, or snow) year-round, and nearly all parts of the Arctic experience long periods with.

The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans It is also known as the coldest of all the oceans. The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) recognizes it as an ocean, although some oceanographers call it the Arctic is sometimes classified as an estuary of the Atlantic Ocean, and it is also seen as the northernmost part of the all-encompassing.   Coastal Alaska was warm enough during the summer due to reduced sea ice in the Arctic Ocean to allow Saint Lawrence Island (now tundra) to have boreal forest, although inadequate precipitation caused a reduction in the forest cover in interior Alaska and Yukon Territory despite warmer conditions.

  By , the Arctic is forecast to be free of ice during summer, which will allow ships to sail across the north pole. Arctic’s strongest sea ice breaks up for first time on record Read more. Sea Ice. As temperatures warm in the Arctic, the extent of summer sea ice coverage continues to decrease. Ice extent dropped to precipitous levels in Arctic sea ice seemed to recover in , but then the sea-ice cover decline resumed. In , the area of Arctic sea ice at the end of the summer melting season reached a low of million.


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Report on sea ice conditions in the Eastern Arctic, summer 1956 by W. A. Black Download PDF EPUB FB2

Get this from a library. A report on sea ice conditions in the eastern Arctic, summer [W A Black]. "A Report on Sea Ice Conditions in the Eastern Arctic, Summer " by W.A.

Black, How to Request Copies To request copies, please use the information above and refer to our request forms, policies, and pricing guidelines.

Definitions. The Arctic Ocean is the mass of water positioned approximately above latitude 65° N. Arctic Sea Ice refers to the area of the Arctic Ocean covered by ice. The Arctic sea ice minimum is the day in a given year when Arctic sea ice reaches its smallest extent, occurring at the end of the summer melting season, normally during Sea summer 1956 book maximum is the day of a year.

And Arctic sea-ice volume is also dwindling rapidly. The level recorded in July — 8, cubic kilometres — is 47% below the mean value for – Now the Author: Alexandra Witze.

Other, scattered records of Arctic sea ice date back to the mids, when sailors kept notes on Northern Hemisphere shipping lanes. Global air temperature records date back to the s and can offer a stand-in (proxy) for Arctic sea ice conditions; but such temperature records were initially collected at just 11 locations.

"In a new book this most experienced and rational scientist states what so many other researchers privately fear but cannot publicly say - that the Arctic is approaching a death spiral which may see the entire remaining summer ice cover collapse in the near future." - Reviews:   Early studies examined the influence of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) during winter on the summer sea ice cover, finding that the predominantly positive phase of the AO in the late s through mids decreased September sea ice coverage by increasing offshore ice advection off the coasts of Siberia (Rigor et alZhang et al ).

The sea ice cover is one of the key components of the polar climate system. It has been a focus of attention in recent years, largely because of a strong decrease in the Arctic sea ice cover and modeling results that indicate that global warming could be amplified in the Arctic on account of ice-albedo feedback.

This results from the high. If Arctic sea ice disappears even for just one summer, as the comprehensive Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment notes (p. 34), this would spell “the disappearance of multi-year sea ice in the.

5. Climate models do a good job of predicting future polar bear habitat. False: My recent book, The Polar Bear Catastrophe That Never Happened, explains that the almost 50% decline in summer sea ice that was not expected until actually arrived inwhere it has been ever since (yet polar bears are thriving).That is an extraordinarily bad track record of sea ice prediction.

In contrast, the Barents Sea is in the so-called ‘Divergent’ sea ice ecoregion, which is also considered at high risk of population decline due to loss of summer sea ice (Amstrup et al. As ofit had lost a whopping days per year of summer sea ice since (more than 21 weeks or almost 5 1/2 months, using these data).

This updated blog post of mine from last yea r is as pertinent now as it was then: it’s a fully-referenced rebuttal to the misleading ‘facts’ so often presented this time of year to support the notion that polar bears are being harmed due to lack of summer sea Bears International developed ‘Arctic Sea Ice Day’ (15 July) to promote their skewed interpretation of polar bear.

Arctic sea ice is collapsing, with few signs of reversal. I’ve been to the far north twice to report on climate change, and in the meantime it’s only gotten worse. Sea ice profiles and polar bear responses both contrary to predictions: Western Hudson Bay (WH) is in the so-called ‘Seasonal’ sea ice ecoregion (see above), which is assumed to be most at risk of summer sea ice decline (Amstrup et al.

).So far, it has seen a decline in summer sea ice of days per year, one of the smallest declines in sea ice of all polar bear subpopulation regions. The Arctic is warming twice as fast as the rest of the planet, according to a Arctic Climate Impact Assessment report, the most recent available.

Summer sea ice in the region shrank by nearly. SEA ICE. Sea-ice areal coverage varies generally from 5 to 6 million km2 at the end of the summer to 14 million km2 at the end of the winter (Parkinson et al., ). Sea-ice thickness increases along the path of sea-ice drift and convergence from west to east (from the Siberian side of the Arctic to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago).

Thomsen, H. The Annual Reports on the Arctic Sea Ice issued by the Danish Meteorological Institute. of Glaciology 1(3): Related Data Collections. Arctic Sea Ice Concentration and Extent from Danish Meteorological Institute Sea Ice Charts, ; The Dehn Collection of Arctic Sea Ice Charts, Why is Antarctic sea ice increasing.

Posted on 2 April by John Cook. While Arctic sea ice loss has shown dramatic decline over the past few decades, Antarctic sea ice has shown long term growth since satellites began measurements in This is an observation that has been often cited by skeptics as proof against global warming.

NWT focus. This indicator tracks changes in the level of human activity in fragile Arctic waterways, including the Beaufort Sea. Shipping in Arctic waters is predicted to increase due to climate change and the melt of sea ice usually enter the western portion of the Northwest Passage from the east through a southern route along the main coast – the Amundsen Gulf – or through two.

Trends in the mid-winter and end-of-summer ice cover [4] Two sea ice parameters that have been useful in quantifying the state of the sea ice cover are the extent and area and especially, their maximum and minimum values. Ice extent is defined as the sum of the ice covered areas with at least 15% ice concentration while ice area is the integral.

First FrankD: Danske Meteorologiske Institut published a series of annual reportson arctic sea ice covering most years from to one folder per year, with each containing individual pages (month identified by the trailing digit) and the whole annual report (about 5.Even if the Arctic routes became regularly open during the summer, the Arctic would still remain closed to commercial navigation during the winter months (unless there are dramatic shifts in weather patterns).

As ofthe ice free conditions of most Arctic shipping routes were only for about 30 days.The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR or Arctic Refuge) is a national wildlife refuge in northeastern Alaska, United consists of 19, acres (78, km 2) in the Alaska North Slope region.

It is the largest national wildlife refuge in the country, slightly larger than the Yukon Delta National Wildlife refuge is administered from offices in Fairbanks.